• Accidents by Flight Phase

Most of the accidents over the last 20 years occurred during approach and landing phases

 

Approach and landing are highly complex flight phases, which place significant demands on the crew in terms of navigation, aircraft configuration changes, communication with Air Traffic Control, congested airspace, and degraded weather conditions.

This combination of high workload and the increased potential for unanticipated events can create a complex interplay of contributing factors, which may lead to an accident.

Accident distribution per flight phase 2001-2020

 
Accident by flight phase as a percentage of all accidents 1999 - 2018

 

Definitions of flight phases

 

 
a

Standing: The phase of flight prior to pushback or taxi, or after arrival, at the gate, ramp, or parking area, while the aircraft is stationary.

b

Taxi: The aircraft is moving under its own power prior to takeoff or after landing. This phase includes the taxi to runway, the taxi to takeoff position, and the taxi from runway until the aircraft stops moving under its own power.

c

Takeoff: From the application of takeoff power, through rotation and to an altitude of 35 feet above runway elevation or until gear-up selection, whichever comes first. This phase includes rejected takeoff. 

d

Initial climb: From the end of the takeoff phase to the first prescribed power reduction, or until reaching 1000 feet above runway elevation, whichever comes first.

e

Enroute: From completion of initial climb through cruise altitude and completion of controlled descent to the Initial Approach Fix (IAF).

f

Approach: From the IAF to the point of transition from nose-low to nose-high attitude immediately prior to the flare above the runway.

g

Landing: The phase of flight from the point of transition from nose-low to nose-up attitude, immediately before landing (flare), through touchdown and until the aircraft exits the landing runway or when power is applied for takeoff in the case of a touch-and-go landing, whichever occurs first.